VVMs (Vaccine Vial Monitors) are small indicators that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to cumulative heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine has exceeded a pre-set limit beyond which the vaccine should not be used. This page provides a list of useful resources on VVMs, organised into the following sections:
- What is a VVM?
- How to read a VVM
- VVM training videos for healthcare workers
- VVM resources for supply chain managers
- VVM in a controlled temperature chain (CTC)
- WHO PQS performance specifications related to VVM
- Other VVM resources
The following resources introduce the VVM and explain how it works.
Resources that explain how to read a VVM to determine whether a vaccine can be safely used for immunization.
Videos on how healthcare workers should use VVMs.
Resources that provide guidance for supply chain managers on how VVMs should be utilised by national immunization programs.
Resources on CTC with reference to VVMs and Peak Temperature Threshold Indicators (PTTI).
Resources that provide technical reference material on the science behind VVM.
Journal articles, webinars, and other publications that provide background information on the VVM.