POST 01292E: NEEDLE-FREE/COLD CHAIN-FREE VACCINE DELIVERY 20 JULY 2008 ******************************************* A peep into the future with regard to needle-free vaccine delivery reveals that innumerable innovative technologies are being researched to deliver vaccines. These range from aerosols to nasal sprays to respirable vaccines (remember the ‘primitive ways’ of gaining immunity against smallpox). The significance of the research outcomes is huge in terms of implication for vaccine safety, waste generation, efficacy etc. Research is also on into cold-chain free vaccines. Probably there will come a day when entire populations can be immunized through an aerial spray? ------ Needle Free Vaccination Via Nanoparticle Aerosols Dr. Edwards is leading a multidisciplinary team using materials science technologies combined with infectious disease, device, and toxicology expertise to reformulate tuberculosis and diphtheria vaccines into aerosol sprays that can be inhaled. The team's ultimate objective is to develop a cell-based BCG vaccine for tuberculosis and a protein antigen CRM 197 vaccine for diphtheria in the form of novel porous nanoparticle aggregate (PNAP) aerosols. Measles Aerosol Project In view of the above and the results of several studies on the administration of measles vaccine through the aerosol route, in 2002, WHO, in collaboration with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Red Cross, established the Measles Aerosol Project, with the purpose of conducting the necessary studies to achieve the licensure of a product (device and vaccine) administered through this route. Development of a Targeted Mucosal Vaccine Delivery Technology Dr. Lo's project addresses two needs: the development of vaccine delivery systems that do not require needles and the design of systems that target specific tissues in the body. Using influenza vaccination as a model, Dr. Lo and his team are working to bind vaccine to specially designed molecules that target mucosal tissue. While their study uses influenza vaccine as a focus, investigators expect the technology potentially could be applied to any pathogen that causes disease in mucosal tissue. They envision vaccines will be given either orally or as nasal spray. Needle Free Delivery of Stable, Respirable Powder Vaccine Childhood vaccines that can be inhaled and delivered directly to mucosal surfaces have the potential to offer significant advantages over injection, the most common way vaccines are given today. Not only might they reduce the risk of infection from HIV, hepatitis, and other serious diseases due to unsterilized needles, they may prove more effective against disease. Nanoemulsions as Adjuvants for Nasal Spray Vaccines Dr. Baker's team is developing a new way of preparing vaccines so that they can be given as nasal drops. These nanoemulsion (NE)-based vaccines use non-toxic lipid droplets less than 200 nanometers in diameter that are absorbed through the mucosal surfaces of the nostrils. They can be easily produced using an extrusion process available worldwide and are antimicrobial, eliminating the need for preservatives or refrigeration. The team is performing proof-of-concept, feasibility, and toxicology studies for a nanoemulsion-based vaccine for hepatitis B surface antigen. Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Delivery Systems To maintain stability and viability, most childhood vaccines must be kept cool – both heat and freezing can ruin them. That means they must be refrigerated at the correct temperature throughout transportation, storage, and delivery. This cold chain is difficult and costly to maintain, especially in developing countries. Dr. Sonenshein and his team are working to create childhood vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (the DTP combination vaccine), and rotavirus-related diarrhea that can withstand a wide range of temperatures without refrigeration by encapsulating them in harmless bacterial spores that are naturally heat-resistant. Thermostable Vaccines with Improved Stability at Non Refrigerated Temperatures Drs. Sarkari and Coeshott and their colleagues are working to identify Pluronic polymer-based formulations that stabilize vaccines from -10°C to 45°C; Their aim is to develop vaccines that are resistant to freezing and form protective matrices at elevated temperatures. Investigators are evaluating formulations based on Pluronic F127 using vaccines for measles and hepatitis B. Post generated using Mail2Forum (http://www.mail2forum.com)
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